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端午节的风俗和起源

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  五月初五端午节,又称重午节,端阳节。自唐宋以来就是官方和民间极为重视的节气。唐玄宗时期,因为“阳”字避讳,就改成了端午节。

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阴历五月是凶月、恶月,所以端午日这一天又被称为凶日,恶日。人们佩戴香包、用艾草、菖蒲挂在门上驱邪避凶,因为中国儒家文化讲人要修身齐家,家是最重要的场景,门是一家的入口,是重要的地方。因此要贴平安符、挂艾草、菖蒲等,都是在门上做装饰。

端午节又是宣告夏至的节气。这一天是阴阳交接之日,端午的气候也就预示了秋天的收成,所以官方、民间都很重视。

端午节有很多风俗,吃粽子、赛龙舟、插艾草、喝雄黄酒。

五月石榴花开,石榴花在民间又被称为吉祥花,所有明清时期,端午节又被称为女儿节,这一天,少女们都要将石榴花插在头上展示美丽。已婚妇女们要带上儿童回娘家探望双亲,回家的时候要给孩子们挂上香包,保佑孩子免受毒虫轻咬,平平安安。

2009年,端午节被例入世界非物质文化遗产保护项目。官方认证端午节产生的年代是2500年。端午节在日本、韩国、台湾、越南等如文化圈的国家中都非常受重视。日本称为男儿节,端午节前半个月左右家家户户都会挂出一面面鲤鱼旗子。日本的端午节起源与中国的起源一样,都来自于爱国诗人屈原。

屈原是战国时期的楚国人,非常有学问,对于治理国家很有想法。曾经辅佐楚怀王大败魏国。但是那是楚怀王前半生的荣耀。楚怀王就是《芈月传》中那个宠爱郑秀,有“异香”,芈月的同父异母的哥哥。楚怀王的后半生听信小人谗言,不理屈原的建议,还将他罢官,逐出国都,屈原就流落到汨罗江边,饿了就吃花瓣,渴了就喝露水。不久后,楚国被秦国灭了,楚怀王也被芈月骗到秦国,被关押了三年客死他乡。屈原收到消息后,伤心绝望就在五月初五这天投江了。

然后关于端午节的风俗故事就上场了。

1.一种传说是,百姓们打捞屈原,没捞着,就准备了很多饭团丢汨罗江,让鱼儿们虾儿们不要去吃屈原。有一年,有人梦见了屈原,问,三闾大夫,我们给您的米饭,您都吃了嘛?屈原说,没有啊,你们送我的米饭,都被鱼虾吃掉了。百姓们就问,那怎么办?屈原就教大家,把米用箬叶包裹,缠上五色四线,做成有尖角的粽子,扔进水里,鱼虾们以为是棱角就不会吃了。于是,第二年,百姓们就包了粽子扔进汨罗江。

后来,屈原又托梦了,说,还是有很多粽子被鱼虾吃了,大家要把船装扮成龙的样子,因为鱼虾都归龙管嘛,所以不就敢去吃了,从此,吃粽子、赛龙舟就被保留下来的。

2.还有一种传说是,端午节那天,人们把粽子投到江里,为了让鱼虾吃粽子,不要吃屈原的尸体。赛龙舟是为了象征着打捞屈原的尸身。把船打扮成龙的样子,敲锣打鼓,就会把水中的妖怪赶走,可以将屈原的尸身捞上来了。

3.还有一种说法,说赛龙舟就是在屈原自沉后,人们争先恐后地去划船救他,就形成了龙舟竞渡习俗。

4.屈原投江后,有一位老医生拿来一坛雄黄酒倒入江中,酒可以毒晕水里的鱼虾水兽,避免它们伤害屈原。雄黄酒倒入江中之后,水面上浮起一条被毒晕的蛟龙,龙须上挂着屈原的一片衣襟。人们说这条龙伤害了屈原,把它拉上岸,剥皮抽筋,将龙筋绑在孩子们的手腕和脖子上,惩罚恶空龙的行径,也保护孩子们不被毒虫侵害。端午节给孩子手腕缠五色线的习俗就开始流传了。

端午节还要插艾草,菖蒲,去除邪气,保佑平安。来源于唐末。跟唐末黄巢起义有关。

黄巢起义军所到之处,百姓们纷纷要出逃。有个一个妇人,手上抱了一个年纪大的,一手拖着一个年龄小的,黄巢很奇怪,就问:别人都是抱小的,手牵大的,你怎么反的呢?

这个妇女就说,手上抱着的是亲人的遗孤,手手里牵着的,是她的亲生骨肉。一旦情况危急,宁肯丢掉手里牵着的亲儿,也要保护好亲人的孩子。

他对妇人说:“你快回城去,在门口插上艾草和菖蒲,黄巢的军队看到了,就不会伤害你家。”妇人信了他的话,又将这话告诉了街坊邻里。乡亲们纷纷在自家门口插了艾草、菖蒲,果然躲过了兵祸。这一天正好是端午节。后来人们每年端午节,都在门上插艾草、菖蒲,用来祈求平安。

系绒线。给孩子们系上绒线,也是最常见的端午节风俗。除了与屈原有关外,传说中这个风俗还与牛郎织女有关。王母娘娘的外孙女织女偷偷来到人间,与牛郎相爱,二人男耕女织,相亲相爱,生育了两个孩子,生活十分美满。但天神与人类的婚配违背了天条,王母娘娘查到织女的下落,气得脸发青。有一日,她亲自来到牛郎家,一把将织女拽上云端。牛郎赶忙披上神牛皮,带着孩子们追上天空,眼见要追上的时候,王母娘娘拔下头上的簪子向后一划,牛郎面前便出现了一条天河,将这对恋人隔在了两岸。牛郎只得回到家中。第二天正好是端午节。牛郎看到妻子织彩锦的绒线没有带走,拿起绒线系在儿女的手腕、脚腕和脖子上,以寄托对妻子的思念,也防止孩子们在外玩耍时,被天兵天将带走。乡亲们看到了,纷纷效仿,既怀念织女,也祝愿孩子们平安吉祥。

包三角粽子。早先的粽子并没有一定的形状。现在的粽子则是三角形的,很像女性缠足的脚。据说这是孟姜女留下的。孟姜女的丈夫范喜良被抓壮丁,为秦始皇修长城,一去三年,音讯全无。孟姜女思念丈夫,安顿好公婆后,打算一人独自去寻夫。临走时,她生怕丈夫挨饿,千方百计琢磨着给他做下称心如意的干粮。经过左思右想,她给丈夫包了粽子。她想,北边边塞的风,用黏米包的粽子,不至于被风吹得干裂。粽子里包了三个红枣,意思是一别三年;三角形的粽子,是模仿自己的脚包的,她想让丈夫知道,妻子千里迢迢跋山涉水,多不容易啊!后来,端午节的粽子就被包成了三角形。吃粽子时,人们就会想到孟姜女寻夫的故事。

粽子啊,南北还是有区别的,以淮河为界限,淮河以南大都吃咸粽子,淮河以北大都吃甜粽子。当然,现在的区别都不是很大。

今天讲的,除了屈原与楚怀王的故事是真的,其他都是传说,哈哈。事实上,闻一多老先生经过考证,端午节是由四五千年古代南越民族举行龙神图腾祭祀的习俗演变而来。吃粽子、赛龙舟在原始社会就有了。并且发源于水乡吴地。历代吴越人有“断发文身”,“以像龙子”的习俗,证明自己是龙的后裔,祈求龙神来保护生命安全和避免蛇虫之害。所以苏州的民间除了挂戴五色线之外,在胸前挂一个长命绺。今天太湖流域即苏州一带就是端午节赛龙舟的发源地。这种考证也是经过很多史学家论证和认可的。

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